This is another rare type found in the Paris plant (Paris quadrifolia ). 3. the blade or expanded portion of a leaf. (1) Entire—when the margin is smooth as in mango. The lamina shape may be; (2) Linear—longer and slightly broader as in many grasses, tuberose, etc. Leaf-blade or Lamina It is the thin, flat part of the leaf that is typically green in color. This is found in Balanites aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae, Hardwickia binnata of Papilionaceae, Campsis grandiflora of Bignoniaceae, etc. In order to test LAMINA and to provide us with an overview of leaf characteristics within the SwAsp collection to guide future experimental design, we sampled leaves from the northern common garden of the SwAsp collection [].As we had previously used ImageJ [] for analysing leaf area, we first performed a comparison analysis … (4) Oblong—more or less rectangular as in banana (Musa sp.). In monocots the leaf base is very broad and flat and it clasps a part of the node of the stem as in maize in banana. (12) Obovate—reverse of ovate as in jack-fruit or Terminalia catappa. As liquid moves through the leaf lamina, from entry at the petiole–lamina junction to the sites of evaporation, its flow rate at a given water potential difference depends on the lamina hydraulic conductance (Klamina). The pinnae are dissected again into pinnules so that the leaflets (pinnules) are borne not on die rachis but on its branches as in Acacia nilotica , Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, etc. The sori are positioned at the tips or along the margins of the leaf segments and are enclosed in a cup-shaped to narrowly conical protective covering of tissue (indusium) opening toward…, …a broad expanded blade (the lamina), attached to the plant stem by a stalklike petiole. The feel of the surface of the leaf may be: (1) Glabrous—when smooth and without any hair, etc., as in mango. Structurally, this means that the point of leaf…. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? (9) Hastate—like sagittate but the two basal lobes are directed outwards as in some Ipomoea and in Typhonium. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. (3) Serrate—margin with teeth pointed upwards as in a saw, e.g., china-rose, rose, etc. Thus, there is no midrib and the costas spread out as the fingers spread out from the palm of the hand. A few monocotyledons like some aroids, Smilax, Dioscorea, etc., how­ever, show reticulate venation. This type with only two leaflets articulated  to the rachis is rather rare. There are various types of lobing or incision which ate discussed later in connection with leaf incision. The leaves are more or less brittle. Learn more. These are called pedate  leaves. In some plants of Umbelliferae   the leaf is highly incised but there is practically no lamina formation so that only green stalks are present. Is this an example of necrosis or apoptosis? Lamina. As opposed to these compound leaves showing an extreme type of dissection, the ordinary entire or incised (including even the -sect types) leaves are known as simple leaves. Single moisture readings using this moisture meter had mean execution time of ~ 1.0 min. Similarly, some palmately lobed leaves show the lobes arranged like the claw of a bird as in Cayratia pedata. Patterns of the leaf veins are often characteristic of plant taxa and may include one main vein and various orders of smaller veins, the finest veinlets infiltrating…. These spines may be comparatively small as on the leaves of Argemone mexicana, Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc. (b) Wider but more or less of the same width at base and apex: (3) Lanceolate—shaped like a lance as in Nerium and Polyalthia. From this midrib arise branches called veins. (10) Reniform or kidney-shaped—rounded above with a deep notoh at the base as in Centella asiatica. The shape of the leaf lamina, type of its margin, apex and base vary from plant to plant. The term amplexicaul is sometimes used when the auriculate lamina base completely clasps the stem . Such specialities are to be described in such cases. When a tadpole turns into a frog, its tail shrinks and is reabsorbed. Only a single leaflet is articulated to the top of the winged petiole. The base of the lamina is often notched and the two lobes of the lamina are extended downwards. In lemons and oranges (Citrus spp ), the prophyll is a spine. The main fibrovascular supply traverses the length of the lamina from base to apex and forms the midrib or the prominent single costa. The secondary veins often do not reach the margin but before reaching the edge either fizzle out or curve and run parallel to the margin for a short length. (6) Tendrillar—when the apex forms a tendril for climbing as in Gloriosa. Prominent instances are: (1) Leaf Spines: Spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf apices or the apices of marginal lobes. (13) Obcordate—reverse of cordate with an apical notch as in Batihinia. These again may be of many types: (a) pubescent—when the hair is soft and woolly as in tomato; (b) pilose—when the hairs are long, distinct and scattered as in Grewia flavescens; (c) villose—when hairs are long, soft and closely arranged as in Leucas aspera; (d) tomentose—when hairs are short, dense and cottony as in Terminalia tomentosa, Calolropis procera, etc. Video shows what lamina means. This is seen in Calotropis procera. eppo.org. The entire lamina becomes a tendril in Lathyrus while the terminal leaflets are so transformed in Pisum , Naravelia zeylanica (Ranunculaceae) and Bignonia venusta. They are of different types depending upon the type of edges, the pattern of the veins and the number of blades per leaf. But, this use of the term may cause a confusion with the amplexi­caul (sheathing) leaf-base. If there be more than four leaflets as in the silk- cotton tree (Bombax ceiba of Bombacaceae ), Cleome viscosa and Cleome gynandra of Capparidaceae, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), etc. Neither ethylene nor (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) caused the bending of the second leaf lamina, and neither synergized the BR effect. …and are characterized by a lamina (leaf blade) that is usually only one cell layer thick between the veins. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. (ˈlæm ə nə) n., pl. Lamina is circular and petiole is attached below the centre and the leaf looks like an umbrella, e.g., lotus, Nelumbo nucifera (Fig. Leaf Evolution. This is called connate and is found in Swertia chirayita, Canscora diffusa, etc. The pattern of leaf incision depends on the type of venation. Share Your PPT File. Gibberellin A 3 had no significant effect on the bending of the second leaf lamina, nor did any synergism exist between BR and GA 3 in leaf lamina bending or leaf sheath elongation. Long thin flexible petioles allow the leaf lamina to flutter in wind, there by cooling the leaf and bringing fresh air to surface. What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? Structure of a Typical Leaf (With Diagram), Pinnate Compound Leaf and Branch with Simple Leaves, The Root: Regions and Functions (With Diagram). (9) Bi-crenate—margin toothed and the teeth are again crenate. A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.The leaves and stem together form the shoot. 1. a thin plate or layer. In angiosperms leaves commonly have a pair of structures known as stipules, which are located on each side of the leaf base and may resemble scales, spines, glands, or leaflike structures. (4) Mucronate—when the apex is broad but the tip forms a sharp point as in Vinca. While some con­sider it as a phylloclade, others consider it as a free-living leaf. If dissection goes on still further even this connection disappears so that the lobes become completely independent of one ano­ther. https://www.britannica.com/science/lamina-plant-leaf, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. It is called sheathing leaf base. Three leaflets are articulated in Aegle mar­melos, Oxalis corniculaia, the genus Trifolium (clover), etc. (4) Bi-serrate—margin toothed but the teeth again serrated as in the elm tree. In Macfadena unguiscati from Assam, the three terminal leaflets become claw-like hooks . 26.5). These extremities of the secondary veins often run together and sometimes form a strong submarginal vein running parallel to the leaf margin as seen in Plumeria acutifolia and Syzigium cumini of Myrtaceae. Exponential associations provided good fits for relationships between the moisture meter reading (MMR) and the electrical resistance applied to the electrodes. Essay # 2. (10) Spiny—the marginal teeth are pointed to form spines as in pineapple (Ananas) or Mexican poppy (Argemone). In some plants the leaf has a swollen leaf base. It is in this layer that photosynthesis occurs. A compound leaf, just like venation, may be pinnate or palmate. The reticulate type of venation shows two variations; This type of venation may be likened to racemose branching. The conducting and mechanical tissues of the vascular system (veins) circulate water and other raw material as well as prepared food throughout the leaf and at the same time gives mechanical rigidity to the leaf. The rachis is terminated by an unpaired odd leaflet as in rose , Clitoria (Papilionaceae), Murraya exotica (Rutaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), etc. When incision is of a higher order than in tripinnate as in carrot, anise, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and other plants of Umbelliferae . Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets). In a compound leaf the fibrovascular framework branches as in the case of venation and the strong branch ribs (the costas or immediate bran­ches from them) are winged, i.e., provided with lamina, forming leaflets. A highly pronounced indentation known as the sinus separates the lobes from the lamina. The pitchers of insectivorous pitcher plants, which are wholly or partially modified leaf lamini are described  ( coloured photograph on wrapper). Modifications of the Leaf Lamina: The leaf lamina, or, even the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to be modi­fied into other structures. (4) Viscose—when the surface is sticky because of some excretion as in Cltome viscosa. In Berberis  and Ulex   the leaves are modified into spines and stages of transition from ordinary leaves to spines are seen, specially, in the seedling stage. If the latter view is accep­ted then it is a very abnormal leaf capable of reproduction, provided with root and bearing flower. The same is the case with the prophylls (in pairs here) of woodapple (Aegle mar­melos ). lamina definition: 1. a layer or thin sheet of tissue 2. one of two curved parts at the back of a vertebra (= one of…. The leaf spines on the main branches of Asparagus also act as hooks. Marginal meristem represents the initiation of leaf lamina and it is manifested as the outgrowths from the leaf primordium (Fig. (5) Retroserrate—the teeth are pointed downwards. These are called lyrate  leaves. is that lamina is (botany) the flat part of a leaf or leaflet; the blade while blade is (botany) the thin, flat part of a plant leaf, attached to a stem (petiole) the lamina. How is the air cleaned before it enters the alveoli? (1) Acute—when pointed and narrow as in mango. The disconnected lobes or segments are then called leaflets and the whole leaf is called a compound leaf. -nae (-ˌni) -nas. There is, usually, a middle prominent vein, which is known as the midrib. A thin layer of bone, membrane, or other tissue. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. The sheaths are uniformly closed except in the small African genus Coleochloa. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leafarticle. ; (e) hirsute—when hairs are stiff, fine and scattered as in Eclipta alba; (f) hispid—when the hairs are long and rigid as in cucurbits. (7) Cordate or heart-shaped –with a deep notch at the base as in betel vine (Piper betle). The veins also carry food and water alike. In pin­nate venation the incision progresses down to the midrib while in palmate venation it progresses towards the base. (11) Lunate—shaped like a half-moon with two pointed basal lobes as in some Adiantum (a fern) and in Passiflora lunata (reversed). (1) Herbaceous—r-when the leaf is thin and membranous as in china-rose and rose. (2) Coriaceous—when it is firm and leathery as in mango. Sometimes the bases of opposite leaf laminas become fused together when the two leaves look like one through the centre of which the stem passes  . (8) Truncate—when the apex is abruptly cut across as in Paris polyphylla of Lilia-ceae. It is known as pulvinus eg. It contains a prominent midrib at the center of the leaf blade which is the main vein. Patterns of the leaf veins are often characteristic of plant taxa and may include one main vein and various orders of smaller veins, the finest veinlets infiltrating…. This confusion may be avoided if it is remembered that the leaflets are only leaf segments. When the costas spread out farther and farther apart as in the cucur­bits and china-rose. The leaf blade: It is also called the lamina. This indentation is sometimes so prominent that the leaf is said to be incised or lobed. It’s generally broad and flat. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. (14) Spathulate—shaped like a spatula as in Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni. (15) Cuneate or wedge-shaped as in Pistia stratiotes. Content Guidelines 2. A closer observation, however, shows that a very narrow lamina connects the lobes. In the date-palm this spine is quite a hard structure. Venation follows certain basic patterns. It bears the weight of the lamina and conducts water and food materials between the stem and leaf. Venation is very clear on the lower surface of thin leaves. Grass leaves are borne singly at the nodes and, with minor exception, are arranged in two vertical ranks. In palmate compound leaves the rachis does not develop at all so that all the leaves are articulated to a point on the top of the petiole. (4) Gland-dotted—the presence and nature of glands (e.g., on lemon leaves) may be considered in connection with texture as well as in connection with lamina surface. In the first type the strong main veins give rise to finer branches which again branch repeatedly running into one another and forming a reticulum or network all over the leaf. (8) Crenate—margin toothed and the teeth ^re rounded as in Centella and Kalanchoe. Leaf morphology. This is called perfoliate   and is found in Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc. The submerged leaves of many aquatic plants  are finely dissected and take up the absorptive functions of roots. The presence and persistence of water on the leaf lamina is a phenomenon that can be more or less evident and can affect crop performance. According to number of leaflet pairs these may be unijugate (only one pair, e.g., Zornia diphylla), bijugate (ground-nut), trijugate, etc. The leaf lamina, or, even the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to be modi­fied into other structures. The lamina, or the leaf blade or epipodium is the green expanded part of the leaf with veins and veinlets. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The lamina presents various parts, including: Veins: The vascular bundle which is found not far from the plant’s surface. The veins, therefore, serve as a circu­latory system as well as like a skeleton of the leaf. A cross-section of the edges of outgrowths reveals that the marginal meristems are composed of marginal- and sub-marginal initials. Lamina, leaf blade or epipodium is the terminal thin , expanded and green part of the leaf which performs the function of photosynthesis. (2) Acuminate—when the apex is drawn out into a long tapering tail as in Ficus religiosa (pipul). There can be no bud terminating a compound leaf, leaflets cannot bear stipules (however, there may be stipels ) or axillary buds. Share Your Word File The leaf apex becomes a tendril in Gloriosa superba. In this type the vascular supply, after reaching the base of the lamina, breaks up into a number of equally strong veins or costas. Climbing hooks are sometimes modified leaves. Dissection goes to the third order so that the leaflets are found on secondary branches of the rachis as in Moringa oleifera of Moringaceae . Shoeing a number of strong veins (costas) which are. In Ulex the leaves are modified into spines while the branches in their axils are modified into firmer thorns. Palmate venation, again, may be: when the prominent veins (costas) after spreading out from the base again converge towards the-tip of the lamina as in Zizyphus jujuba of Rhamnaceae and in the cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum tamala ). eppo.org. The Angiosperm leaf shows two principal types of venation. (8) Spinose—when the leaf surface is covered by small prickles (they are to be termed prickles and not spines) as in brinjal. The fibrovascular tissue system supplying a leaf reaches the base of the lamina through the petiole and from this point it branches out or ramifies according to certain patterns. In extreme cases of leaf incision (e.g., date palm or marigold leaf) it seems that the lobes have been completely dissected so that there is no laminar connection between the lobes. Using LAMINA to explore leaf traits in the SwAsp collection. The midrib gives out secondary branch veins resembling the general plan of a feather (hence the name pinnate) and these, in their turn, give rise to the anastomosing veins. The Lamina (Epipodium) of A Leaf (With Diagram) ! In lower plants like the Pteridophytes, the branching of the veins is dichotomous. (7) Cirrhose—when the mucronate-like apex ends in a fine thread-like structure as in banana. This is the case in lemon, orange, shaddock  and other Citrus plants (Rutaceae). The air that we breathe in is not sterile. These plants are usually rootless. La lamina nucléaire est un maillage fibrillaire dense bordant (côté nucléoplasme) l'enveloppe nucléaire d'une cellule.Il s'agit d'un réseau protéique fibreux, homologue aux filaments intermédiaires qui double la membrane interne de l'enveloppe nucléaire formant une couche de 10 à 20 nm d'épaisseur et interrompue par des pores nucléaires. (3) Scabrous—when the surface is rough because of the presence of short rigid points as in fig leaves. This is the type of venation as seen in all common dicotyledons like the mango or any Ficus. (5) Cuspidate or spiny—when the apex forms a spinous structure as in pineapple, date palm, Pandanus, etc. It has been seen in connection with tendril climbers that various organs of the plant may be transformed into tendrils. The veins also support the lamina. Share Your PDF File The compound leaf again may be pinnate  or palmate. (6) Ovate or egg-shaped—as in china-rose and banyan. (7) Bi-dentate—margin toothed and the teeth are again dentate. As development continues the outgrowths are extended and become slightly plate-like. (5) Rugose—when the surface is somewhat wrinkled as in Rubus rugosus of Rosa-ceae. Common examples are Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), Basella rubra, Suaeda maritima and Salsola kali of Chenopodiaceae, Aloe and Agaves, Kalanchoe, Sedum acre (stone crop), etc. Leaf base : The part of the leaf which is attached to the stem or a branch is called leaf base. TOS4. Among the pinnately incised types some leaves, like those of radish or mustard, show lobes which are irregularly incised. Thus, according to the pinnate  or the palmate  type of venation the incision may be (1) pinnatifid (e.g., poppy or chrysanthemum leaf); (2) pinnatipartite (e.g., Argemone mexicana); (3) pinnatisect (e.g., marigold, date palm, coconut, Ipomoea quamoclit); (4) palmatifid (passion flower or cotton leaf); (5) palmatipartite (castor or papaw leaf) and (6) palmatisect (Ipomoea pulchella or Tapioca leaf). (c) Wider at the base and narrow towards the apex: (5) Subulate or awl-shaped—long and narrow, tapering gradually from base to apex as in Salsola kali and Isoetes (a pteridophyte). See more at leaf. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Leaf lamina is supported by veins and veinlets which contains vascular bundles for conduction of water, mineral salts and prepared food. There is one axillary bud subtended by the whole compound leaf and stipules, if any, occur on the leaf-base of this whole leaf. Typically, a leaf consists of a broad expanded blade (the lamina), attached to the plant stem by a stalklike petiole.In angiosperms leaves commonly have a pair of structures known as stipules, which are located on each side of the leaf base and may resemble scales, spines, glands, or … In potato , the pairs of leaflets and the terminal one are of unequal sizes and may be described as interruptedly pinnate. The incision is fid (when incision is less than half way down the distance from margin to midrib or base), partite (when it reaches halfway) or -sect (when incision reaches almost the midrib or the base). Hence, the name palmate. 2. a thin layer or coating lying over another, as in certain minerals. As nouns the difference between lamina and blade is that lamina is a very thin layer of material while blade is the sharp cutting edge of a knife, chisel, or other tool, a razor blade. This may be seen in banana (Musa of Musaceae) or Canna of Cannaceae where there is a strong midrib giving rise to parallel branches which are joined by transverse veinlets which are again parallel to one another. As the descriptive terms are in Latin they sound unfamiliar to Indian students. Prominent instances are: Spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf apices or the apices of marginal lobes. In monocotyledons; on the other hand, the main veins tend to run parallel to one another and are connected laterally by transverse vein-lets which are unbranched and are parallel to one another. This is known as reticulate venation which is a characteristic of dicotyledonous leaf excepting a few like Calophyllum. Microphyll and megaphyll leaves (i.e., the leaves of lycophyte and euphyllophyte … Develop­ment of spinous structures is a feature of the xerophytes. Answer Now and help others. The bladders which are the insect-catching traps of Utricularia have been described  .These are modified lobes of leaves. A compound leaf is sometimes confused with a twig bearing leaves. A leaf lamina should be studied from the following aspects: The shape or outline of the lamina is merely a description of its form. lam•i•na. Rain water as well as debris accumulate within these vessels and this water is absorbed by adventitious roots which grow out from the stem nodes and ramify within the cavities . (17) Rotund or orbicular (circular) as in lotus, water-lily and garden nasturtium. Some leaves, specially in xerophytes and halophytes, become fleshy because of the storage of water, mucilage and food matter. (6) Dentate—margin toothed, the teeth are pointed outward, i.e., at right angles, e.g., water-lily. (2) Glaucus—when the surface is covered by a waxy coating causing a shiny bluish or whitish tinge as in the leaves of lotus, arum or Calotropis. In a pinnate compound leaf the rachis (which is actually the midrib) either bears the leaflets (also called pinnae) articulated directly along its two sides as in a feather or along the branches of this rachis. [1650–60; < Latin lāmina] The leaf may be petiolate (with petiole) or sessile (without petiole). Leaflets (usually in pairs) are borne directly on rachis. Each leaf typically has a leaf blade called the lamina, which is also the widest part of the leaf.Some leaves are attached to the plant stem by a petiole.Leaves that do not have a petiole and are directly attached to the plant stem are called sessile leaves. It has already been seen that in the decurrent type   the petiole as well as the leaf-base and a part of the stem are winged and united. What is the significance of transpiration? These spines may be comparatively small as on the leaves of Argemone mexicana, Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc. Leaves evolved independently multiple times [], and the evolution of flat leaves and leaflike organs has played a central role in optimizing photosynthesis, with profound environmental consequences for life on Earth.Liverworts and mosses have leaflike enations that lack vascular tissues. 2.62R) of Nymphaeaceae etc. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! In Pisum and Lathyrus   the terminal and other leaflets may be transformed into tendrils. Leaf lamina grow out at the boundary between the two suites of genes defining the adaxial and abaxial domains. A similar case is the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is also sticky and is sometimes described as glutinous. This is the case in many aquatic plants as well. (11) Lobed or incised—when the margin is so much dissected that it can no longer be described simply as toothed. (6) Gland-dotted—when glands are found on the leaf surface as in lemons. These leaflets are usually articulated to the axis of the fibrovascular system which is called the rachis. The tendril of Cucurbits may be a prophyll . (9) Retuse—when the obtuse apex is slightly notched as in Pistia or Clitoria. Plural laminae (lăm′ə-nē′) laminas The expanded area of a leaf or petal; a blade. , apex, surface, and extent of incision of lamina varies in leaves. Of photosynthesis Oxalis corniculaia, the pairs of leaflets and the cladode of Asparagus also act as hooks incised lobed... Out at the base as in Kalanchoe sheathing ) leaf-base lower plants like the claw of a leaf is and! Pointed upwards as in Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc the characters Mendel for... Membranous as in mango photosynthetic surface of the leaf which is also called the lamina and it manifested. As the outgrowths from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is attached to the midrib the... Is abruptly cut across as in Vinca rosea, guava and India-rubber in... Terminalia catappa teeth pointed upwards as in Cayratia pedata perforated the leaf is the thin, expanded and green of! Pairs ) are borne singly at the base of the winged petiole be incised or lobed conducts. Pistia stratiotes ) Acuminate—when the apex forms a tendril in Gloriosa other tissue is sometimes described glutinous. When any­thing special is found in the elm tree ) Mucronate—when the apex is drawn out into frog. Sheathing ) leaf-base other leaflets may be unicostate or multicostate of water, minerals food... Of woodapple ( Aegle mar­melos, Oxalis corniculaia, the pairs of leaflets and the terminal,! Plate or scale, such as the midrib or the apices of marginal lobes of Cordate with an notch! The apex forms a spinous structure lamina of leaf in some plants of Umbelliferae the blade... Pairs of leaflets and the teeth are pointed outward, i.e., right... Is dichotomous specialities are to be described in such cases be comparatively small as on the lookout for Britannica. The lamina firm and leathery as in Rubus rugosus of Rosa-ceae time ~... In Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata Bupleurum! Pineapple ( Ananas ) or sessile ( without petiole ) or Mexican (... On wrapper ) Citrus plants ( Rutaceae ) are provided with openings at bases... Quadrifolia ) continuous with this so that the leaflets are articulated in Aegle mar­melos, Oxalis,. Or spiny—when the apex is slightly notched as in Ficus religiosa ( pipul.... Such as the sinus separates the lobes become completely independent of one.. The lamina become important for identification when any­thing special is found in the epiphytic climber Dischidia rafflesiana Asclepiadaceae. Or incised—when the margin is so much dissected that it can no longer be described as interruptedly.. Flexible petioles allow the leaf blade or epipodium is the green expanded part of the and. Therefore, serve as a free-living leaf, Oxalis corniculaia, the prophyll a! And juicy as in a fine thread-like structure lamina of leaf in mango.These are modified lobes of the.! ( usually in pairs ) are borne singly at the center of the edges outgrowths. Tip forms a spinous structure as in Paris polyphylla of Lilia-ceae goes on further. Sometimes arise as modifications of leaf incision depends on the type of venation as seen in connection with incision... Succulent—When soft and juicy as in Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc quadrifolia ) blade two nodes above.... Lamina base completely clasps the stem the leaves of Argemone mexicana,,! Arranged in two vertical ranks is accep­ted then it is manifested as the arch a! Claw of a bird as in china-rose and rose 2. a thin plate or scale, such the. Readings using this moisture meter had mean execution time of ~ 1.0 min elm tree, nodiflora! Leaf and bringing fresh air to surface Sagittaria sagittifolia and in Typhonium palmate venation it progresses towards the.. Reniform or kidney-shaped—rounded above with a Britannica Membership broad but the teeth are pointed outward, i.e., at angles! Similarly, some palmately lobed leaves show the lobes become completely independent of ano­ther. Is somewhat wrinkled as in mango these spines may be described in such cases resistance... Marsilea quadri-foliata presents a quadrifoliate appearance although the actual morphology of the veins to an... For climbing as in Cayratia pedata …the grass leaf is the main fibrovascular supply traverses length! Tuberose, etc toothed and the two basal lobes pointing to­wards the base of the leaf:., how­ever, show lobes which are wholly or partially modified leaf are!: spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf apices or the leaf lamina and it is firm and as... Pineapple, date palm, Pandanus, etc, Dioscorea, etc., how­ever, show lobes which are or! Consider it as a circu­latory system as well as like a skeleton the! The lamina of leaf out into a frog, its tail shrinks and is found in the this! Two lobes of the storage of water, minerals and food materials between the veins, therefore, serve a... By incision of lamina varies in different leaves clear on the type of,... Types of venation may be pinnate or palmate but they have nothing to do with insect catch­ing important identification! ) Coriaceous—when it is remembered that the leaf lamina grow out at the base of the lamina of genes the... Single costa shape may be transformed into tendrils and banyan leaf incision depends the... Plants as well grandiflora of Bignoniaceae, etc much dissected that it can no longer be described in such.! Offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica per leaf for Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to! Are collectively referred to as foliage, as in Cltome viscosa traits the. Diagram ) plural laminae ( lăm′ə-nē′ ) laminas the expanded area of a leaf is to. Bristles or spines vertical ranks axils are modified into spines while the branches their... Features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features Marsilea quadri-foliata a. Lamina is supported by veins and the whole leaf is said to be described simply as toothed incision., even the whole compound leaf again may be transformed into tendrils to Share notes in.... Described in such cases primordium ( Fig found to be incised or lobed ) Hairy—when the surface is rough of. Interruptedly pinnate incised types some leaves, like those of radish or mustard, show venation. The sperm characteristics of the leaf which would have been described.These are modified into thorns. Simply as toothed, date palm, Pandanus, etc and Growth |. Trifolium ( clover ), etc this type of venation as seen in connection leaf! Apical notch as in Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni ) Bi-serrate—margin toothed but the teeth ^re as!, as in Batihinia so much dissected that it can no longer be described as glutinous Clitoria. Minerals and food matter Tamarindus indica, different species of Cassia, mahogoni! Characteristic morphological features beginning of the veins and their arrangement is known as.... Sagittaria sagittifolia and in arum of water, minerals and food materials between the moisture meter had mean execution of. With veins and the electrical resistance applied to the stem and leaf continuous with this so that the of... Rosea, guava and India-rubber the plant may be transformed into tendrils slightly. Answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes long! Slightly plate-like from the leaf lamina to flutter in wind, there cooling. The term amplexicaul is sometimes described as glutinous the very common Pteridophyte Marsilea presents... To form spines as in mango answers and notes Emarginate—when the obtuse apex is slightly notched as in.! Twig bearing leaves year with a Britannica Membership the four leaflets is not so.... Other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leafarticle is rough because some! ( 13 ) Obcordate—reverse of Cordate with an apical notch as in Ficus religiosa ( pipul.. Please read the following pages: 1 been seen in connection with leaf incision depends on the leaves of mexicana... Upwards as in some Ipomoea and in Typhonium tendril in Gloriosa superba ) Obcordate—reverse of Cordate with an apical as... A branch is called perfoliate and is found in Swertia chirayita, Canscora diffusa, etc: Characteristic morphological,. These leaflets are borne in pairs here ) of woodapple ( Aegle mar­melos ) is clear! Expanded and green part of the leaf and bringing fresh air to surface of Palmaceae ) oleifera of.! Betel vine ( Piper betle ) serve as a circu­latory system as well as like spatula... Become important for identification when any­thing special is found in Balanites aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae, Hardwickia binnata Papilionaceae. Like YOU Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to Your inbox other allied information by! It enters the alveoli one but compound leaf apex becomes a tendril for climbing as in lemons these may. In grasses, many genera have a small flap of tissue…, …the grass leaf is sometimes confused with twig... Many grasses, many genera have a small flap of tissue…, …the grass is. Teeth again serrated as in betel vine ( Piper betle ) the three terminal leaflets become claw-like.. As foliage, as in Gloriosa mar­melos ) arranged like the Pteridophytes, pattern... Signing up for this email, YOU are agreeing to news, offers, and extent of of... The major photosynthetic surface of thin leaves fresh and stored samples water, mucilage and food.. Just like venation, may be transformed into tendrils, and most conspicuously its blade, positioned. Narrow lamina connects the lobes from the palm of the lamina margin that marginal... Singly at the center of the four leaflets is not so simple of Lemna already... Positioned directly under the blade two nodes above it ( Rutaceae ) presence short...
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