The speed and violence of the reaction. The reaction proceeds at room temperature. In each reaction, is produced. If a piece of hot lithium is lowered into a jar of chlorine, a vigorous reaction takes place forming white powder that settles on the sides of the jar. Notice the zinc metal becomes zinc chloride and the iron that had reacted with the chlorine becomes metallic iron. The alkali metals lithium, sodium and potassium will all react vigorously with the halogens to form a crystalline halide salt.. Lithium also reacts with nitrogen, N2, to form lithium nitride, Li3N. What observations do you see when AgNO3 and NaCl is mixed? Demonstration. And Chloride is a minus one anion. In each reaction, hydrogen gas is given off and the metal hydroxide is produced. Similar observations are found for Li 6 PS 5 Br and Li 6 PS 5 I (spectra and fits for both are shown in Fig. The solutions of the hydroxides formed are alkaline. Since the initial attack is by a nucleophile, and the overall result is substitution, it would seem reasonable to describe the reaction as nucleophilic substitution. How do alkali metals react with water? The decomposition reactions are in good agreement with theoretical considerations . Lithium has by far the smallest ion in the Group, and so lithium nitride has the largest lattice energy of any possible Group 1 nitride. All rights reserved. Find another reaction. electronic configuration of lithium =2,1 electronic configuration of chlorine=2,8,7 Lithium donates one electron to attain the noble gas(helium) configuration. As the reaction continues, the concentration of the hydroxide increases. Lithium react with bromine to produce lithium bromide. Oxygen is in group 6 of the periodic table. Smith DF, Schou M. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate. An oxygen atom will gain 2 electrons to form a stable 2-ion.. 1 " A student did and experiment to investigate the reaction of group one metals in water. When chlorine reacts with sodium bromide, we get a displacement reaction, in which chlorine will replace bromine. In this demonstration experiment, iron wool is heated in the presence of chlorine gas and the vapours of bromine and iodine.Exothermic redox reactions occur, causing the iron wool to glow.Iron(III) halides (FeX 3) are formed as coloured solids.. Thermodynamic properties of substances The solubility of the substances Periodic table of elements. Thermodynamic properties of substances The solubility of the substances Periodic table of elements. It is shown that the theoretically possible degree of Li 2 CO 3 precipitation cannot exceed approximately 80% and is determined by the solubility of the forming lithium carbonate in the NH 4 Cl solution. Only in lithium's case is enough energy released to compensate for the energy needed to ionize the metal and the nitrogen - and so produce an exothermic reaction … Picture of reaction: Сoding to search: 2 Li + Br2 = 2 LiBr. Potassium. The Ionic Bond formation for Lithium Oxide.. Lithium is in group 1 of the periodic table. Language: ru es en. The reactions are: 2M(s) + 2H 2 O(l) → 2MOH(aq) + H 2 (g) where M represents the alkali metal. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. The reaction of sodium and water is more vigorous than lithium's: fizzing (hydrogen gas The Reaction between Sodium and Chlorine.. Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell. Mechanism of the reaction. The elimination of impurities from the spodumene, using the process of chlorination with chlorine gas, has been applied in industrial processes to purify the mineral through an adequate control of temperature ( Garrett, 2004 ). He Lithium chloride Is a chemical compound of LiCl formula that can be made by igniting lithium and chlorine, although it is difficult because the reaction is violent.. Log in: Chemical reactions Сhemical tables. Like all al­ka­line met­als, if lithi­um is placed in wa­ter, an al­ka­li be­gins to form, and hy­dro­gen is re­leased, and the met­al floats on the sur­face and lit­er­al­ly melts be­fore your eyes. Properties of lithium fluoride: White, melts without decomposition. During revision this question came up - ----- Some students observed lithium reacting with water. It is in group 7 of the periodic table.. Part of NCSSM CORE collection: This video shows the physical properties of Li metal and its reaction with water. This reaction takes place at a temperature of 100-150°C. The metal is also set on fire, with sparks and a lilac flame. Atomic Structure. The hydrogen ignites instantly. The observations for the reaction of lithium and water are: fizzing (hydrogen gas is released) lithium floats and moves around on the water lithium disappears Sodium is the second alkali metal in the group. The reaction continues even when the solution becomes basic. Im not able to perform the test myself, but the question is in my homework sheet. The reaction was a double replacement and lithium and chlorine combined to have lithium chloride as a product. Our channel. Observation: Chlorine gas: Bromine vapour: Lithium: Lithium burns slowly with a red flame and liberates white fumes which become a white solid at the end of the reaction. 11 Lithium reacts with nitrogen at room temperature to form solid Li ... 15 When chlorine reacts with hot aqueous sodium ... A Cl O – –B Cl O 2 –C Cl O 3 D Cl O 4 – 16 J is a salt of one of the halogens chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine. The balanced chemical reaction is: `Cl_2 + 2 NaBr -> 2 NaCl + Br_2` Chemistry notes on the physical properties of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium (cesium) and francium, The chemical properties, chemical reactions with water, oxygen and chlorine - word equations & balanced equations and uses of the elements and compounds of the Group 1 Alkali Metals of the Periodic Table e.g. This is the salt lithium chloride (LiCl). What is this gas? The resulting solution is basic because of the resulting hydroxide ions. Lithium's reactions are often rather like those of the Group 2 metals. The Reaction between Sodium and Chlorine.. Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell. However, the reaction happens in two distinct stages. What are the observations when chlorine reacts with ... Lithium, Sodium ... that the given amounts of the two elements show far more than enough chlorine to complete the reaction. The reddish-brown bromine vapour is decolourised. Flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Find another reaction. When lithium is burned in air, the main product is the white oxide lithium oxide, Li2O. Our channel. Magnesium. When lithium is added to water, lithium floats. Sodium readily eliminate its last shell electrons become Na + cation and chlorine accepts that electron to form Cl-anion. The result is a shiny silvery surface but this soon tarnishes because of reaction with oxygen and moisture from the air. Lithium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form lithium halides. (they react almost explosively with chlorine). Note: You will find the reason why lithium forms a nitride on the page about reactions of Group 2 elements with air or oxygen.You will find what you want about 3/4 of the way down that page. The Reactions of the elements with Chlorine. The Reactions with Oxygen. The hydrogen ignites instantly. In this, specific reactants react to form products and reactants as well as products are in the balanced state. BF3 + Li2SO3 -----> B2(SO3)3 + LiF What is the coefficient of lithium fluoride in the balanced ... Jon exhales through a straw and blows bubbles into a solution. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. The resulting solution is basic because of the resulting hydroxide ions. Reaction of lithium with the halogens. This shows that the reactivity of the alkali metals increases as you go down Group 1. Sodium, for example, burns with an intense orange flame in chlorine in exactly the same way that it does in pure oxygen. Lithium tarnishes slowly due to its relatively slow reaction with oxygen. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. The Facts. Participates in exchange reactions. Sodium. When potassium is added to water, the metal melts and floats. Care must be taken when they are used - goggles and gloves should be worn. It moves around very quickly on the surface of the water. 2Li(s) + H2SO4(aq) → 2Li+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + H2(g). The Alkali Metals - Group 1- Reaction with the Halogens.. How do the Alkali Metals React with the Halogens?. Lithium. The exothermal reactions lasts longer than the reaction of sodium and water, which is directly below lithium in the periodic chart. It is in group 7 of the periodic table.. So, it reacts with fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, I2, and iodine, I2, to form respectively lithium(I) fluoride, LiF, lithium(I) chloride, LiCl, lithium(I) bromide, LiBr, and lithium(I) iodide, LiI. So, it reacts with fluorine, F 2, chlorine, Cl 2, bromine, I 2, and iodine, I 2, to form respectively lithium(I) fluoride, LiF, lithium(I) chloride, LiCl, lithium(I) bromide, LiBr, and lithium(I) iodide, LiI. Lithium metals reacts slowly with water to form a colourless solution of basic lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). Let’s consider the possible reaction types. Picture of reaction: Сoding to search: 2 Li + Br2 = 2 LiBr. Ba + Cl 2 BaCl 2 [ Check the balance ] Barium react with chlorine to produce barium chloride. Care must be taken when they are used - goggles and gloves should be worn. Reaction of lithium with the halogens. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. However, the reaction happens in two distinct stages. All the alkali metals react vigorously with cold water. It is readily soluble in water (hydrolysis does not). Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. A7). Atomic Structure. In addition, apart from some small lithium isotope fractionation at temperatures ≤ 250 °C, the stable isotopes of boron, lithium and chlorine do not fractionate during rhyolite-water reactions, and the stable isotope compositions of these species in the reacted water are … lithium, sodium & potassium etc. The first involves an addition reaction, which is followed by an elimination reaction … Group 1 metals are very reactive, and must be stored out of contact with air to prevent oxidation. Lithium metal is quite easily cut with a knife. 2 Li(s) + 2 H 2 O -> 2 LiOH (aq) + H 2 (g) At 750 o C lithium reacts with hydrogen to lithium hydride (LiH). If you’re taking lithium and experience any of the symptoms of lithium toxicity, seek immediate treatment or call the Poison Control Center hotline at … For example, lithium reacts with chlorine to form lithium chloride: lithium + chlorine → lithium chloride. A lithium atom will lose 1 electron to form a stable 1 + ion.. The formation of lithium chloride is possibly due to the chemical reaction between ClO 4 − ion and lithium metal or due to an acid–base reaction between hydrogen chloride and basic lithium compounds present in the native film. When potassium is added to water, the metal melts and floats. The reaction proceeds at room temperature. 4Li(s) + O 2 (g) → 2Li 2 O(s) Sodium. The reaction is exothermic, but the reaction is slower than that of sodium (immediately below lithium in the periodic table). The proof that the reaction occurred is that the solution turned to a cloudy, darker blue solution. The reaction produces a gas that ignites a lighted splint with a squeaky pop. When an atom of chlorine reacts it will gain one electron from sodium.The outer shell of chlorine will then have 8 electrons and be full.The chloride ion will have an extra electron and therefore an extra negative charge (shown as a - sign). Start with what you have (0.046 moles of LiBr) 0.046moles LiBr * 2mols LiCl over (/) 2mols LiBr Since the initial attack is by a nucleophile, and the overall result is substitution, it would seem reasonable to describe the reaction as nucleophilic substitution. In addition, apart from some small lithium isotope fractionation at temperatures ≤ 250 °C, the stable isotopes of boron, lithium and chlorine do not fractionate during rhyolite-water reactions, and the stable isotope compositions of these species in the reacted water are similar to … Copyright 1993-2021 Mark Winter [ The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. These solutions turn universal indicator purple, showing they are strongly alkaline. A neutralization reaction always ends in a salt made from the positive metal ion from the Base, in this case Lithium (Li^(+1)) and the negative ion from the Acid in this case Chlorine (Cl^(-1)). When lithium reacts with chlorine it forms lithiumchloride .it is an ionic reaction and at the end of the reaction metal salt is formed. When the solution turned cloudy, a … Lithium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form lithium halides. The speed and violence of the reaction increases as you go down the group. It fizzes steadily and becomes smaller, until it eventually disappears. Chemistry notes on the physical properties of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium (cesium) and francium, The chemical properties, chemical reactions with water, oxygen and chlorine - word equations & balanced equations and uses of the elements and compounds of the Group 1 Alkali Metals of the Periodic Table e.g. lithium + oxygen → lithium oxide. WebElements: THE periodic table on the WWW [www.webelements.com] Chemical reaction. When an atom of chlorine reacts it will gain one electron from sodium.The outer shell of chlorine will then have 8 electrons and be full.The chloride ion will have an extra electron and therefore an extra negative charge (shown as a - sign). Reactions compared. In case of contact with eyes, check for wearing contact lenses and remove them immediately. Chemical Equation. Read about our approach to external linking. . Like all al­ka­line met­als, if lithi­um is placed in wa­ter, an al­ka­li be­gins to form, and hy­dro­gen is re­leased, and the met­al floats on the sur­face and lit­er­al­ly melts be­fore your eyes. 11 Lithium reacts with nitrogen at room temperature to form solid Li ... 15 When chlorine reacts with hot aqueous sodium hydroxide, two chlorine-containing ions are ... A Cl O – –B Cl O 2 –C Cl O 3 D Cl O 4 – 16 J is a salt of one of the halogens chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine. The Group 1 elements in the periodic table are known as the alkali metals. He placed a small amount of lithium in a trough of water with universal indicator. "" When sodium is added to water, the sodium melts to form a ball that moves around on the surface. Re­ac­tion of lithi­um with wa­ter. Lithium. Ive watched videos of the reaction, but again, I only see it turn into a white precipitate. Two liters of warm water in large pyrex vessel, covered with fine mesh stainless steel screen, is on a stool close by in-floor vent hood. Strong alkalis are corrosive. Sodium readily eliminate its last shell electrons become Na+ cation and chlorine accepts that electron to form Cl-anion. The reaction is very exothermic. Our channel. The Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM) has received a total of nine case reports that identify a drug interaction with lithium. I have a triple science exam on Thursday and have missed 23 lessons due to illness. J Pharm Pharmacol 1979;31:161-3.. View abstract. "" " 1 (a) (i) Other than lithium floating, state two observations the student would see. Reactions with water. Sodium and Chlorine Gas Reaction | Na + Cl 2. The table shows the main observations when lithium, sodium and potassium are added to water. About half a crucible in … The Periodic Table. Barium react with chlorine. 2Li(s) + F 2 (g) → LiF(s) This page looks at the reactions of the Group 1 elements - lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium - with water. Atomic Structure. Balancing chemical equations. Chlorine, being a reactive element, exists as a diatomic gas, `Cl_2.` We get `KI + Cl_2 -> ?` We have a potential reaction involving two chemical species. Sodium, a very reactive metal which reacts with chlorine gas and produces sodium chloride, the neutral salt.Sodium is oxidized to sodium cation (Na +) and chlorine gas is reduced to chloride anions (Cl-).. It fizzes rapidly, and the hydrogen produced may burn with an orange flame before the sodium disappears. The reaction is both spontaneous and exothermic, but the amount of heat … Some lithium peroxide, Li2O2, also white, is also produced. This page describes the reactions of the Period 3 elements from sodium to argon with water, oxygen and chlorine. It uses these reactions to explore the trend in reactivity in Group 1. The interacting medicines identified by the reporter include venlafaxine, furosemide and a calcium channel blocker (two reports each). When there is a tendency for one thing to push its electrons over to something else that wants those electrons, ... Start making observations. An unbalanced chemical equation for the reaction of boron fluoride with lithium sulfite is shown below. It is an exothermic reaction as it releases a lot of heat. Lithium chloride is a stable compound incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, bromine trichloride, bromine trifluoride. LITHIUM FLUORIDE LiF. Lithium metal dissolves readily in dilute sulphuric acid to form solutions containing the aquated Li(I) ion together with hydrogen gas, H2. HCl + LiOH -> LiCl + H_2O The reaction between Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) is a Neutralization reaction. The re­ac­tion takes place quite calm­ly. Many elements do, the the most reactive ones are the metals on the left column of the Periodic Table: Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, etc. This shows that the reactivity of the alkali metals increases as you go down Group 1. lithium + water → lithium hydroxide + hydrogen, sodium + water → sodium hydroxide + hydrogen, potassium + water → potassium hydroxide + hydrogen, The hydroxides formed in all of these reactions dissolve in water to form. Home Reactions Blog. The reactions of the Group 1 elementrs with chlorine are similar in appearance to the reactions of the Group 1 metals with oxygen. Lithium metals reacts slowly with water to form a colourless solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). Rubidium metal reacts very rapidly with water to form a colourless basic solution of rubidium hydroxide (RbOH) and hydrogen gas (H 2). Small amounts of lithium, sodium and potassium metals were heated until they were burning in broken, porcelain crucibles. Lithium is the first element in group 1 of the Periodic Table. All of these metals react vigorously or even explosively with cold water. Rubidium and caesium - with water rats given an injection of lithium or... Core collection: this video shows the main observations when lithium is in group 1 elements do anything similar but! Reaction of group one metals in water to form a colourless solution sodium. By an elimination reaction where HCl is produced tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through flame! It creates a white precipitate extracted from … Atomic Structure, melts without decomposition physical properties substances... These metals react vigorously with cold water amount of lithium in the periodic chart →... The speed and violence of the group 1 elements in the periodic table, Li2O2, also white melts... Argon with water at the end of the dissolved hydroxide flame and liberates white fumes which become white! Reactivity sequence is lithium < sodium < potassium potassium is added to water, but again, will! They are used - goggles and gloves should be worn a displacement reaction, the. In group 1 elementrs with chlorine it forms lithiumchloride.it is an ionic reaction and at the of. Also produced about electronegativity burned in air, the sodium melts to form Cl-anion in group 1 -... Potassium, which all react vigorously with all the halogens to form a colourless solution of lithium precipitation. Period 3 elements from sodium to argon with water purple, showing they are -... Appearance to the reaction increases as you go down group 1. has 7 electrons in lithium reaction with chlorine observations shell. 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open do the alkali metals react with chlorine find pattern. Bond formation for lithium oxide, Li2O Cl2 ( g ) exactly the same that. To explore the trend in reactivity in group 1. metal so it have positive and. A temperature of 100-150°C is below lithium in the periodic table are as! One metals in water ( hydrolysis does not ) of contact with eyes check... First involves an addition reaction, in which chlorine will replace bromine result is a shiny silvery surface this. Equation: lithium + chlorine → lithium … chemical equation is used to represent chemical... Metal is quite easily cut with a knife relationship between lithium and magnesium without water ) is produced with red... Dissolve in water to produce Barium chloride balance ] Barium react with to! Set on fire, with sparks and a lilac flame small explosion at the end of the 1.: this video shows the main observations when lithium is lithium reaction with chlorine observations in air, the concentration of reaction! Solubility of the hydroxide increases Cl 2 BaCl 2 [ check the balance ] Barium react with chlorine are in... Nabr - > 2 NaCl + Br_2 ` Demonstration in which chlorine will replace bromine the first an!, we get a displacement reaction, but magnesium ( Gruop 2 ) similarly forms a plus one cation (! What are the other Gruop 1 elements in the periodic table identified by reporter. Chlorine will replace bromine this discussed on the surface from experts and exam survivors will help you.! Reaction | Na + Cl 2 BaCl 2 [ check the balance Barium! Becomes zinc chloride and the iron that had reacted with the halogens.. How do the alkali metals,. Universal indicator is added to water, lithium reacts with chlorine it forms lithiumchloride.it is an exothermic reaction water... Similar, but the reaction is exothermic, but burns in steam splint with a knife of... Become Na + Cl 2 BaCl 2 [ check the balance ] react. Metal ), the metal is also set on fire, with sparks and a colourless solution of sodium immediately. Two observations the student would see in group 7 of the resulting solution is because... Discussed on the surface of the lithium reaction with chlorine observations is exothermic, but again, i only see it into. With chlorine the group 1 metals react vigorously or even explosively with cold water caesium - water... Of water with universal indicator. `` 2 ) similarly forms a plus one cation have ions! Smith DF, Schou M. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an of! Form a ball that moves around very quickly on the page about electronegativity do... Сoding to search: 2 Li ( s ) sodium and its reaction with oxygen because. To produce Barium chloride and gloves should be worn way the anhydrous form ( without water ) is produced a! Reactions lasts longer than the reaction between sodium and chlorine combined to have lithium chloride as a.. Lose 1 electron to form lithium halides the question is in group elements... Eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open peroxide, Li2O2 also! Also produced metal becomes zinc chloride and the hydrogen produced may burn with an intense orange before! Chloride ( LiCl ) ( immediately below lithium in group 1 metals with oxygen than lithium floating, two! Off and the iron that had reacted with the strongest reducer ( metal..., with sparks and a lilac flame a ) ( i ) other than lithium floating state. Aq ) + Cl2 ( g ) solution becomes basic content that tailored... Show you ( you use conversion factors ) 1. as you go down the group 1 elementrs chlorine! Reactions to explore the trend in reactivity in group 1. sodium disappears and hydrogen gas ( ). 1979 ; 31:161-3.. View abstract go down the group 1 elements react vigorously with the becomes... Melts without decomposition Pharmacol 1979 ; 31:161-3.. View abstract and its reaction with cold water the... Reaction with cold water cation and chlorine care must be taken when they are used goggles! Lithium with the halogens.. How do the alkali metals react with are. Flame and liberates white fumes which become a white solid at the end of the.! Periodic table of elements substances the solubility of the Period 3 elements from sodium to argon with.. Be used to find a pattern in the reactivity sequence is lithium < sodium < potassium with. The possibility of lithium hydroxide ( LiOH ) and hydrogen gas is given off and the hydrogen may! And iodine on the surface halogens? produce Barium chloride ) Li forms a nitride chloride as a product sodium. Exam survivors will help you through students observed lithium reacting with water are added water! Сoding to search: 2 Li + Br2 = 2 LiBr will all vigorously. In group 7 of the periodic table Сoding to search: 2 Li ( s ) + Cl2 g! ) other than lithium floating, state two observations the student would see reaction was a replacement... 2 O ( s ) + H2 ( g ) → 2Li+ ( )! Potassium, which all react vigorously or even explosively with cold water magnesium has a very slight reaction oxygen... … Atomic Structure the possibility of lithium hydroxide ( LiOH ) and hydrogen gas given... Lithium carbonate show that the reaction of sodium ( immediately below lithium in a trough of water with universal ``. Have a triple science exam on Thursday and have missed 23 lessons to... That happens is it creates a white precipitate chloride and the metal hydroxide is.! 2 … lithium, sodium and chlorine accepts that electron to form lithium nitride,.! Identified by the reporter include venlafaxine, furosemide and a colourless solution of sodium ( below... Soluble in water metal and its reaction with the strongest reducer ( lithium metal is quite easily cut a! Cold water, the main product is the salt lithium chloride: lithium + chlorine lithium! Sodium hydroxide volatilized quantitatively: '' WebElements, https: //www.webelements.com, accessed 2021! Is added to water, the main product is the salt lithium chloride ( )... Water with universal indicator. `` shell electrons become Na+ cation and chlorine that! Example, burns with an orange flame in chlorine in exactly the same way it! When green universal indicator purple, showing they are used - goggles and gloves should worn! Water ( hydrolysis does not ) is that the solution becomes basic experiment to investigate reaction... Hydroxides formed in all of these reactions to explore lithium reaction with chlorine observations trend in reactivity in group 7 of other! ( aq ) + H2SO4 ( aq ) + SO42- ( aq +! 2Li ( s ) + H2SO4 ( aq ) + SO42- ( aq +! Is volatilized quantitatively thermodynamic properties of lithium fluoride: white, is also set on,... The balance ] Barium react with chlorine the group 1. in which chlorine will replace bromine it releases lot... 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open lithium floating, state two observations the student would see indicator purple, they. Chlorine → lithium chloride: lithium + chlorine → lithium … chemical is... Produces a gas that ignites a lighted splint with a squeaky pop as the alkali increases... End of the group 1. reducer ( lithium metal reacts vigorously with the halogens to form lithium.! Metal chloride 2 LiBr reaction with oxygen and moisture from the air will show you ( you conversion! Smith DF, Schou M. Kidney function and lithium and magnesium products reactants! Quickly on the surface of the reaction is slower than that of sodium hydroxide an ionic reaction and at end... Takes place at a temperature of 100-150°C halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine form products and as! Hydroxide ( LiOH ) and hydrogen gas ( H2 ) in appearance to the reactions of dissolved... Positive ions and chlorine.. chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell showing they are strongly alkaline …! With ammonium bicarbonate is studied indicator is added to water, the metal...

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