https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/e/ebionites.html. The origin of the term, a Hebrew word meaning poor persons, is obscure.It may have been an honorific title given to an original group of Christians who were Jews living in Jerusalem that needed assistance from Christians elsewhere in the Roman Empire (Rom. Its members evidently left Palestine to avoid persecution and settled in Transjordan (notably at Pella) and Syria and were later known to be in Asia Minor and Egypt. Kevin Knight. Thus they naturally repudiated Paul and his new doctrine entirely; for them Paul was a deceiver and … t first appears in the writings of Irenaeus (Adv. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionæans (Ebionaioi), is a transliteration of an Aramean word meaning "poor men". They themselves faithfully followed the Law, although they removed what they regarded as interpolations in order to uphold their teachings, which included vegetarianism, holy poverty, ritual ablutions, and the rejection of animal sacrifices. They form the stepping-stone to Gnosticism. 1:344; 350; Schliemann, Die Clementinen (Hamb. Paulinism of the Early Church. They did not call themselves Christians until later. Against Heresies — Irenæus. 2. Haer. ). Strong, James. : 1:116; 2:376; 3:175 et al. Ebionite, member of an early ascetic sect of Jewish Christians. (Leipsig, 1820); Mosheim, Comnmentaries, 1:220, 400; Neander, Church Hist. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. The Ebionites and Nazarenes were Jewish–Christian sects during the Second Temple era. Bishop Horsley replied to Priestley in his Charge to the Clergy of St. Albans (1783), and in other tracts, collected in Tracts in Controversy with Dr. Priestley (Dundee, 1812, 3d ed.). The former is a particularistic contraction of the Christian religion; the latter a vague expansion of it" (Church History, § 67). The term "the poor" was at first a common designation for all Christians - a reference to their material as well their voluntary poverty. 1, § 68, 214 sq.). On the other side, see N. Amer. The Ebionites believed Jesus became the Messiah because he obeyed the Jewish Law. I. xxvi. Pronunciation of Ebionites with 2 audio pronunciations, 5 translations, 2 sentences and more for Ebionites. He professes to discover in the New Testament the consecutive stages of a progress which, beginning with the Unitarian creed terminates in the doctrine of Christ's proper divinity. Origin The name Ebionite seems to be derived from Heb ˒eḇyôn, òpoor. — See, besides the works already cited, Irenaeus, Har. Ecclesiastes in, 27) fancifully derives the name from "the poverty and meanness of the Elbionite doctrine concerning Christ." LITERATURE. April, 1864, page 569 sq.). October 1864, art. The first use of the word "Christian" is found in Acts 11:26, where it states the disciples in Antioch were called Christians. The Gospel of the Ebionites is the conventional name given by scholars to an apocryphal gospel extant only as seven brief quotations in a heresiology known as the Panarion, by Epiphanius of Salamis; he misidentified it as the "Hebrew" gospel, believing it to be a truncated and modified version of the Gospel of Matthew. • Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God s body Catholic Encyclopedia. The name of the sect is from the Hebrew ebyonim, or ebionim (“the poor”); it was not founded, as later Christian writers stated, by a certain Ebion. The common Ebionites, who were by far the more numerous, embodied the Pharisaic legal spirit, and were the proper successors of the Judaizers opposed in the epistle to the Galatians. 1844), page 362 sq. According to TERTULLIAN (De Praescr. By Mary Jane Chaignot. The exact relationship of the Ebionites to the Dead Sea Community and/or the Essenes as well as the older sect known as the Rechabites is still a matter of conjecture, although more recent scholarship has tended to see basic similarities if not some type of direct relationship. (b.) Neither are named in Mark or Matthew chapters 1-2, while both are named eight times each in Luke chapters 1-2, and Zacharias is named in Lk 3:2 (above). a sect of Judaizing Christians who received the doctrines of the Gospel very partially, and denied the divine nature of Christ. Other writers Ebionites of today that I have encountered chop the New testament off at Act 2. They do not appear to have been at any time numerous, and it is doubtful whether they ever obtained such consistency as to have a definite creed. "Baur agrees with the old Socinians in the statement that the Jewish Christianity of the apostolic age was Ebionite. Origen (c. Presb. Ebionites. But, as there were different sects in Judaism itself, we have also to distinguish at least two branches of Ebionism, related to each other, as Pharisaism and Essenism, or, to use a modern illustration, as the older deistic and the speculative pantheistic rationalism in Germany, or the two schools of Unitarianism in England and America. The second class of Ebionites, starting with Essenic notions, gave their Judaism a speculative or theosophic stamp, like the errorists of the Epistle to the Colossians. EBIONITES is the name given to a Jewish Christian sect that flourished during the early history of the Christian church. I. regarding holy times, places, acts, and persons alike, and have been wanting in the Christian knowledge which knows how to secure to the O.T. ), and in the other forms of what is called Unitarianism (q.v.). The sense of his Messianic calling first arose in him at his baptism by John, when a higher spirit joined itself to him. Ecclesiastes 4:22), one Thebutis, at Jerusalem, about the beginning of the second century, "began to corrupt the Church secretly on account of his not being made a bishop." It is true that Jesus was "christ," but so also would all be who fulfilled the Law. ; Martensen, Dogmatics (Edinburgh, 1866), § 128; Shedd, History of Doctrines, 1:106 sq. It continued into the fourth century, but at the time of Theodoret was entirely extinct. Jesus is, indeed, the promised Messiah, the son of David, and the supreme lawgiver, yet a mere man, like Moses and David, sprung by natural generation from Joseph and Mary. The Ebionites, however, still refused to accept this conclusion; though no doubt some of them, weary of waiting for Jesus' return, went back to the fold of normative Judaism and gave up their belief in Jesus as Messiah and prophet. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Ebionites From International Standard Bible Encyclopedia EBIONITES - A Jewish-Christian heretical sect flourishing in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cents A.D. Some Unitarian writers have undertaken to show that Ebionism was the original form of Christian doctrine, and that the Church doctrine as to the person of Christ was a later development; so Priestley, in his History of the Corruptions of Christianity (Birmingham, 1782). They existed during the early centuries of the Common Era. The sect considered him a native heathen, who came over to Judaism in later life from impure motives. Though it consisted mostly of Jews, Gentile Christians also sometimes attached themselves to it. The discussion is not meaningful. They tend to disrupt Christian boards with their views unless the staff put their foot down. its abiding significancy, which it has as a divine institute without imperiling the newness and conclusive completeness of Christianity." Haeret. Apocrypha: Gospel of the Ebionites The Gospel of the Ebionites is known only by the quotations from Epiphanius in these passages of his Panarion: 30.13.1-8, 30.14.5, 30.16.4-5, and 30.22.4. 11; Burton, Bampton Lectures (Oxford, 1829), notes 73-84. Baur's position is clearly stated, and refuted by professor Fisher (Am. The following selection is excerpted from Montague Rhode James in The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1924), pp. traces the Ebionitish tendency as far back as the Epistle to the Hebrews. ; Herzog, Real- Esacyklopadie, 3:621 sq. We wish we knew who actually used the Gospel. Dreieinigkeit Gottes; Dogmengeschichte, etc. Ebionites and Essenes. Evidently, they later found this unsatisfactory and developed their own literature—the Gospel of the Ebionites—although none of this text has survived. The early Ebionite literature is said to have resembled the Gospel According to Matthew, without the birth narrative. Their doctrine may be reduced to the following propositions: (a.) The Ebionites were a Jewish sect that insisted on the necessity of following Jewish religious law and rites, [1] which they interpreted in light of Jesus' expounding of the Law. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). translated 1:189 sq.) Ebionites (Greek: Ἐβιωναῖοι, Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew אביונים ‎ ebyonim, ebionim, meaning 'the poor' or 'poor ones') as a term refers to a Jewish Christian sect who were vegetarians, viewed poverty as holy, believed in ritual ablutions, and also rejected of animal sacrifices. 29:1). Christology of the Early Church. Kircheng., 4:279 sq. Doctrines. Ebionites. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionæans (Ebionaioi), is a transliteration of an Aramean word meaning “poor men”. 1. We know that the Ebionites believed Yeshu was born of a natural generation between Joseph and Mary; while some Nazarenes believed in a virgin birth. Literature. 1. [2] They regarded Jesus as the Messiah but not as divine.The Ebionites revered his brother James as the head of the Jerusalem Church and rejected Paul of Tarsus because he was an apostate towards the Law [citation needed]. haer. (c.) Paul is an apostate and heretic, and all his epistles are to be discarded. The term Ebionites derives from the Hebrew אביונים Evionim, meaning "the Poor Ones", which has parallels in the Psalms and the self-given term of pious Jewish circles. 2. 29:1), and came later to designate Jewish Christians (Origen, cont. : 3:554 sq.). The pseudo-Clementine homilies teach a speculative form of Ebionism, essentially Judaizing in spirit and aim [ (See CLEMENTINES), 2, page 383]; and compare Schaff, Ch. The Ebionites were one of several such sects that originated in and around Palestine in the first centuries ad and included the Nazarenes and Elkasites. The party which the Epistle to the Hebrews had in view must have over-estimated the law of the O.T. 1:26 (Ante-Nicene Library, verse 97); Gieseler, Ueber die Nazarder und Ebioniten, in Archiv fur A.&N. 1). 1843, 6 vols. They believed in one God and taught that Jesus was the Messiah and was the true “prophet” mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:15. We wish we had the whole Gospel. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. As predicted, Satan has ruled the hearts and minds of believers, and the church has become spiritually disenfranchised by manmade doctrines. The Name. Eusebius (Hist. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. New York. The Ebionites also held Jerusalem in great veneration. V. EVIDENCE FROM EBIONISM FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH. The Ebionites knew nothing of the pre-existence or divinity of their revered prophet. Among these belong the Elkesaites" (Schaff, Ch. General Statement: The Ebionites were a sect of heretics frequently mentioned by the early Fathers. They form the stepping-stone to Gnosticism. This term was anciently applied in derision to Christians in general (Epiphanius, adv. — Dr. Schaff sharply distinguishes Ebionism from Gnosticism as follows: "Ebionism is a Judaizing, pseudo-Petrine Christianity, or a Christianizing Judaism; Gnosticism is a paganizing or pseudo-Pauline Christianity, or a pseudo-Christian heathenism. The second class of Ebionites, starting with Essenic notions, gave their Judaism a speculative or theosophic stamp, like the errorists of the Epistle to the Colossians. Cels., V. 61) distinguishes between two branches of Ebionites, - those who denied and those who accepted the miraculous birth. 2). Most of the features of Ebionite doctrine were anticipated in the teachings of the earlier Qumrān sect, as revealed in the Dead Sea Scrolls. xxxiii. Entry for 'Ebionites'. No one doubts that the first followers of Jesus were all Jews. The Ebionites developed from this branch. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionaeans, Ebionaioi, is a transliteration of the Aramean ABYONYA, meaning “poor men”. History, 1, § 69; Dorner, Person of Christ, Edinb. Among these belong the Elkesaites" (Schaff, Ch. 8-10. c. 33) derives it from a founder, Edion, who maintained the authority of the Jewish law, and rejected the miraculous conception and divine nature of spirit. Bibliography InformationMcClintock, John. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The sect seems to have existed into the 4th century. 1. There occurred at the end, or before the end, of the apostolic age, a reaction of the Jewish Christianity, which with Baur is identical with the Judaizing or Ebionite element; and this type of Christianity prevailed through the larger part of the second century." They themselves faithfully followed the Law, although they removed what they regarded as interpolations in order to uphold their teachings, which included vegetarianism, holy poverty, ritual ablutions, and the rejection of animal sacrifices. What eventually became of the Ebionites remains a point of contention amongst historians. 4. (Adv. The name of the sect is from the Hebrew ebyonim, or ebionim (“the poor”); it was not founded, as later Christian writers stated, by a certain Ebion. A link to all Patristic mention of the Ebionites is at this link-- the original Latin texts.. Ebionites On Authority of Apostles. i.26.2), who gave no explanation of the term. The Ebionites believed Jesus became the Messiah because he obeyed the Jewish Law. According to the same writer, "the characteristic marks of Ebionism in all its forms are, degradation of Christianity to the level of Judaism, the principle of the universal and perpetual validity of the Mosaic law, and enmity to the apostle Paul. Ebionite writings: Clementine Homilies; Clementine Recognitions; Clementine Epitomes; Asc Isa; Odes of Solomon. Haer., I., xxvi, 2… But the consequence of the legal stand-point soon showed itself. A far abler advocate of the Socinian view is Baur, in his Christenthum d. drei erstess Jahrhunderte; Lehre v.d. Organization of Ebionites. We have only these eight fragments that Epiphanius quotes. The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Hebrew Gospel. We wish we… First (Lexicon, s.v.) (See Fisher, 1. c., for a criticism of this view, and for a brief but luminous sketch of Ebionism. 3. Exposure Of. Corrections? The derivation first above given is now generally adopted. They are thought to have been a poor JEWISH CHRISTIAN SECT which rejected PAULINE CHRISTIANITY and affirmed the Gospel of Matthew. — The name is derived from the Hebrew אֶבְיוֹן, poor. The most complete account available of the Ebionites comes from Epiphanius of Salamis who in the fourth century recorded a "heresiology", Panarion, which was aimed to denounce 80 so-called heretical sects, including the Ebionites. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Generally, the movement came to have a very negative view of Paul as an “apostate from the Torah,” though it is possible that in the 2nd and 3rd centuries there were branches of the Nazarenes who were more tolerant of Paul as the “apostle to the Gentiles,” but who as Jews, nonetheless, insisted on Torah observance. Hoer. 2. (d.) Christ is soon to come again to introduce the glorious millennial reign of the Messiah, with the earthly Jerusalem for its seat. 1870. Those Jews who broke away to follow Jesus called themselves Nazarenes and later, Ebionites. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient, History of the Corruptions of Christianity, Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. EBIONITES: translation an early CHRISTIAN HERESY referred to by IRENAEUS whose BELIEFS are obscure. Hence Origen compared this sect to the blind man in the Gospel who called to the Lord without seeing him, 'Thou son of David, have mercy on me!'. In many ways, Eisenman feels that the Ebionites were similar to the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Omissions? "We find the sect of the Ebionites in Palestine and the surrounding regions, on the island of Cyprus, in Asia Minor, and even in Rome. The people who qualify for the first time as Ebionites are one or several Christian sects in certain writings of Irenaeus, even though this church father did not supply a good designation of meaning for that word. From the Catholic Encyclopedia. The first mention of the sect is in the works of the Christian theologian St. Irenaeus, notably in his Adversus haereses (Against Heresies; c. 180); other sources include the writings of Origen and St. Epiphanius of Constantia. During the life of Jesus, Judaism was split into four main sects: Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots and Essenes. Ebionites Eb 2. Horsley, in this controversy, made use of Bull's learned treatment of the subject in his reply to Zwicker (see Bull, On the Trinity, Oxford, 1855, 3 vols. — Dorner (Person of Christ, Edinb. and Theolog. How to say Ebionites in English? 2000 years ago I lived as Jacob and was known as the brother of Yeshua. Ebionite, member of an early ascetic sect of Jewish Christians. It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. Irenaeus on the Ebionites Adversus Haereses (Book I, Chapter 26) Those who are called Ebionites agree that the world was made by God; but their opinions with respect to the Lord are similar to those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates. EBIONITES. ; Burton, Ecclesiastes History, Lect. It is the same as debating Scripture with an Atheist. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ebionites. How were the two different from orthodox (Pharisee) Judaism? They rejected the Virgin Birth of Jesus, instead holding that he was the natural son of Joseph and Mary. It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. But, unlike them, he holds that we find within the canon a great departure from, and advance upon, this humanitarian doctrine of Christ's person. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Celsum, 2:1). Epiphanius traces the origin of Ebionitism to the Christians who fled to Pella after the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 66 (adv. Contemporary writers on Ebionites: Irenaeus; Tertullian; Hippolytus; Origen; Eusebius, III, 27; Epiphanius; Jerome; Justin Martyr (Trypho, 47, 48) refers to the Ebionites without naming them. It used a Hebrew Gospel, now lost, which was probably a corruption of the Gospel of Matthew" (Schaff, Church History, 1, § 68, page 214). Haer., I, xxvi, 2… The Ebionites were one of several such sects that originated in and around Palestine in the first centuries ad and included the Nazarenes and Elkasites. Hist. Following schisms within the early Church, the graecized Hebrew term "Ebionite" was applied exclusively to Jewish Christians separated from the developing Pauline Christianity, and later in the fourth century … Harper & Brothers. Circumcision and the observance of the whole ritual law of Moses are necessary to salvation for all men. Rev. Refutation of the Ebionites, who Disparaged the Authority of St. Paul, from the Writings of St. Luke, which must be Received as a Whole. By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. transl., page 203 sq.). Updates? 1. 1, § 68, 214 sq. They are difficult to combat because they do not respect the written Word. There are other interesting features of the Gospel of the Ebionites, known from the quotations of Epiphanius, the fourth-century heresiologist (= heresy-hunter). makes the derivation refer to Matthew 5:3 making "Ebionites" equivalent to "oppressed pious exiles" (Isaiah 25:4). It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. Tertullian (De Praescrip. Rev. By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. See also Waterland, Works, Oxf. The Jewish Christians called themselves “Ebionites.” “Ebionite” is a word derived from Hebrew meaning “the poor.” They traced their vow of poverty back to the first Christian community described in the New Testament Acts of the Apostles (4:32-35), and were a spiritual community that shared all of their possessions in common. (historical) A member of an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around Judea and Palestine from the 1st to the 4th century. History. According to Hegesippus (Hist. Disappointed in his hopes of advancement, Paul broke with the High Priest and sought fame by founding a new religion. 2. "From that zeal for the law with which Paul had to contend, the Judaizing spirit was led not at first to impeach the Christology, but rather the Soteriology, or the work of Christ. The Ebionite movement may have arisen about the time of the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem (ad 70). Hist. The Ebionites testified that Paul had no Pharisaic background or training; he was the son of Gentiles, converted to Judaism in Tarsus, came to Jerusalem when an adult, and attached himself to the High Priest as a henchman. Here he distinction between Nazarenes and the Ebionites proper becomes apparent. The Community who followed James were known as 'the Poor', (Galatians 2:10, James 2:3-5) a designation mentioned both in the Sermon on the Mount and in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Ebionism has reappeared, since the Reformation, in Socinianism (q.v. 2006. 2. … Haer. Little information exists on the Ebionites, and the surviving accounts are subject to considerable debate, since they are uniformly derived from the Ebionites’ opponents. The legal stand-point soon showed itself Jahrhunderte ; Lehre v.d Mosheim, Comnmentaries, 1:220, 400 Neander... Partially, and came later to designate Jewish Christians of their revered.. 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